In the 1980s, the (111)In-labeled somatostatin analog OctreoScan (Covidien, Hazelwood, MO) was developed for imaging of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst(2)) overexpressing tumors. On the basis of this success, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) was developed using similar somatostatin analogs with different therapeutic radionuclides. Clinical application of PRRT demonstrated impressive results on tumor response, overall survival, and quality of life in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The peptides 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), Tyr(3)-octreotate (DOTATATE) and DOTA, Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTATOC) (brand name Onalta), predominantly targeting sst(2), have been granted Orphan Drug status by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration for application in PRRT. Besides somatostatin receptor-targeting peptides, multiple other radiopeptide analogs were developed targeting several other receptors overexpressed on various tumors. Some of these peptide analogs, including cholecystokinin, gastrin, gastrin-releasing peptide, arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-peptides, and glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs appeared very promising in preclinical and clinical imaging and PRRT studies. Although the success of PRRT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs has been established, there is still room for improvement. The therapeutic window of PRRT could be enlarged by the use of new and improved targeting compounds, of which new antagonists with excellent tumor to background ratios are very promising. Furthermore, locoregional administration, improved healthy tissue protection, and combination treatment can be applied to increase the effectiveness of PRRT. Combination treatment might include cocktails of different peptide analogs of different therapeutic radionuclides and of radiolabeled peptides with chemotherapeutic or radiosensitizing agents. This review summarizes results of PRRT and describes clinical and preclinical studies regarding PRRT optimizing strategies.
Preclinical and clinical studies of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy