Bradykinin-related peptides, kinins, ubiquitously occur in the nervous system and together with other pro-inflammatory mediators contribute to pathological states of that tissue such as edema and chronic pain. In the current work we characterized the kinin-forming system of neuronal cells obtained by differentiation of human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 with retinoic acid. These cells were shown to concentrate exogenous kinin precursors, kininogens, on the surface, release kinins from kininogens and subsequently convert kinins to their des-Arg metabolites. Significantly higher amounts of kinins and des-Arg-kinins were produced after cell stimulation with interferon-γ, a potent pro-inflammatory mediator involved in many neurological disorders. The expression of the major tissue kininogenase (the human kallikrein 1) and the major cell membrane-bound kininase (the carboxypeptidase M) also increased after cell stimulation with interferon-γ, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the kinin production and degradation, respectively. Interferon-γ was also able to up-regulate the expression of two known subtypes of kinin receptors. On the protein level, the changes were only observed in the expression of the des-Arg-kinin-specific type 1 receptor which functions in the propagation of the inflammatory state. Taken together, these results suggest a novel way for local kinin and des-Arg-kinin generation in the nervous tissue during pathological states accompanied by interferon-γ release.
Kinin generation from exogenous kininogens at the surface of retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells after stimulation with interferon-γ